- Eve Marder
Eve MarderEve Marder is the Victor and Gwendolyn Beinfield Professor of Neuroscience in the Biology Department. Marder grew up in New York and New Jersey, and gained her first degree in biology from Brandeis University, in 1969. She earned her PhD at the University of California, San Diego in 1975, and then worked at the University of Oregon in Eugene, and the École Normale Supérieure, Paris. She then returned to the Biology Department at Brandeis University, becoming a full professor in 1990. She has pioneered understanding of how a neural circuit can generate the necessary rhythmic firing patterns that control rhythmic muscle movements such as breathing, walking, and passage of food through the gut. Marder’s much feted contributions to neuroscience include membership of the US National Academy of Sciences and fellowship of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Her awards include the Women in Neuroscience Mika Salpeter Lifetime Achievement Award (2002), the Gruber Award in Neuroscience (2013), and the George A. Miller Award from the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (2012).
- Michael M. Merzenich
Michael M. MerzenichMichael Merzenich is Professor Emeritus in Neuroscience at the University of California, San Francisco. Born in Lebanon, Oregon, Merzenich gained a first degree in science at the University of Portland in 1964, and earned a PhD in physiology at Johns Hopkins University in 1968. After postdoctoral research at Madison, Wisconsin, he joined the UCSF Department of Otolaryngology, working on a prototype for today’s electronic cochlear implants. He was Co-Director of the Coleman Memorial Laboratory, then Co-Director of the Keck Center for Integrative Neuroscience at UCSF until retirement in 2007. From 1996 to 2003 he led the company Scientific Learning, then co-founded Posit Science, developing computer-based ‘brain training’ for enhancing cognitive performance. Merzenich is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine. His awards include the Zülch Prize of the Max-Planck Institute, the Purkinje Medal, and the Karl Spencer Lashley Award.
- Carla J. Shatz
Carla J. ShatzCarla Shatz is Professor of Neurobiology and of Biology at Stanford University, and Director of Bio-X. Shatz grew up in West Hartford, Connecticut. She did her undergraduate degree at Radcliffe College, and studied with neurophysiologists Hubel and Wiesel at Harvard (who later won a Nobel Prize in 1981). After graduating in 1969, Shatz had a Marshall Scholarship to study physiology at University College London. She then became the first woman to gain a PhD from the Harvard Department of Neurobiology in 1976. In 1978 Shatz joined the Stanford University School of Medicine, and moved to UC Berkeley in 1992. She left the west coast in 2000 to become the first woman to lead a basic science department at Harvard Medical School, the Department of Neurobiology. In 2007, Shatz returned to Stanford to head Bio-X. Shatz is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, the European Academy of Sciences and Arts, and the Royal Society, UK. Her awards include the Gill Prize in Neuroscience (2006), the Mika Salpeter ...
- Cornelia Isabella Bargmann
Cornelia Isabella BargmannCornelia Isabella Bargmann was born in 1961 in Virginia and raised in Athens, Georgia, where she attended the University of Georgia. She then went north to study cancer-signalling genes and cloned the oncogene HER2, a key factor in breast cancer, in the laboratory of Robert Weinberg at the Whitehead Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- Winfried Denk
Winfried DenkWinfried Denk was born in 1957 in Munich. From 1978 to 1981, he studied physics as an undergraduate at the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich, followed by further studies at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, where he was awarded a diploma in physics in 1984.
- Ann Martin Graybiel
Ann Martin GraybielAnn Martin Graybiel was born in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts in 1942. Her father, Ashton Graybiel, was a prominent medical doctor and researcher who investigated the effects of weightlessness and acceleration in astronauts and helped to prepare them for space motion sickness.
- Brenda Milner
Brenda MilnerBrenda Milner is a Professor in the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery at McGill University and a Professor of Psychology at the Montreal Neurological Institute. Her career has spanned more than six decades, and during her distinguished career she has made seminal discoveries in the area of memory systems. She was born in Manchester, England and graduated from Cambridge University with a BA degree in experimental psychology. Milner was awarded a Research Studentship by Newnham College, Cambridge for two years. However, as a result of World War II, the work of the Cambridge Psychological Laboratory that she was based in was diverted to applied research in the selection of aircrew. Milner’s position in this was to devise perceptual tasks for future use in selecting aircrew. Following their marriage, she and her husband moved to Canada. Brenda Milner became a PhD candidate in psychophysiology at McGill University, under the direction of the distinguished Donald O. Hebb. In 1950, Hebb gave Milner an opportunity to study with Wilder Penfield at the Montreal Neurological Institute, where she studied ...
- John O’Keefe
John O’KeefeJohn O’Keefe is Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience in the Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at University College London. In June 2013, he was appointed as the Inaugural Director of the Sainsbury Welcome Centre. Born in New York City and a U.S. citizen, John O’Keefe received a bachelor’s degree from the City College of New York. He went on to study for his doctoral degree in physiological psychology with Ronald Melzack in Donald O. Hebb’s department at McGill University in Montreal; his doctorate was awarded in 1967. O’Keefe then worked as a U.S. National Institute of Mental Health postdoctoral fellow at University College London in the laboratory of Patrick Wall. He has been there ever since, becoming a professor in 1987. Throughout his career, O’Keefe has studied the hippocampus and its role in spatial memory and navigation, the loss of which is prominent in disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. His research has shown how networks of hippocampal neurons are involved in determining an animal’s location in the environment. He discovered place cells in the hippocampus ...
- Marcus E. Raichle
Marcus E. RaichleMarcus E. Raichle is a Professor of Radiology, Neurology, Anatomy, and Neurobiology at the Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis. He received his bachelor’s and medical degrees from the University of Washington in Seattle. Between 1964 and 1971, he furthered his medical training at Baltimore City Hospital, Cornell Medical Center, and Johns Hopkins University, including a two-year appointment as a Major in the United States Air Force, where he worked as a Neurologist and Flight Surgeon at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine in Texas. He joined the faculty at Washington University as a research instructor in Neurology and Radiology in 1971, and was appointed as Professor of Neurology in 1978 and Professor of Radiology in 1979. Marucs Raichle is known for his pioneering research in the development and use of imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography, to identify specific areas of the brain that are involved in tasks such as seeing, hearing, reading, and remembering, as well as emotion. This work has allowed researchers to study the living human brain and record ...
- Richard H. Scheller
Richard H. SchellerRichard H. Scheller is Executive Vice President of Research and Early Development at Genentech, where his role is to see basic research translated into the development of new treatments for human disease. Scheller was born on October 30, 1953 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He studied chemistry, first as an undergraduate, then PhD student, at the California Institute of Technology, followed by a stint in biology. In 1981, the east coast beckoned in the form of an opportunity to work on the genes responsible for behavior with Eric Kandel and Richard Axel at Columbia University – both of whom went on to win Nobel Prizes in 2000 and 2004, respectively. Scheller impressed Kandel with his desire to enter the realm of neuroscience with no previous background in the field, and his use of the new recombinant DNA techniques to identify genes encoding for signalling molecules called neuropeptides. He continued with a creative molecular biology approach to neuroscience with faculty positions at Stanford University from 1982 onward in the Departments of Biological Sciences and Molecular and Cellular Physiology, ...
- Thomas C. Südhof
Thomas C. SüdhofThomas Südhof is Professor in Molecular and Cellular Physiology at Stanford University School of Medicine. Südhof was born in Göttingen, Germany, on December 22, 1955. He developed his interest in cell biology while working with Viktor P. Whittaker at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, where he obtained a PhD on the secretion of hormones from the adrenal gland. In 1983, Südhof moved as post-doc to the U.S. to join the laboratory of Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. He succeeded in cloning the receptor of LDL (the low-density lipoprotein receptor), contributing to the reputation of Brown and Goldstein, who in 1985 were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on cholesterol metabolism. Südhof secured his first independent position as Assistant Investigator at UT Southwestern in 1986, and received several promotions to the position of Professor in the Department of Molecular Genetics (1991–2008), and Director of the Center for Basic Neuroscience. During this time, he set out to elucidate the molecular ...
- James E. Rothman
James E. RothmanJames E. Rothman is Professor and Chairman in the Department of Chemistry at Yale University. Rothman was born in Haverhill, Massachusetts in 1950. As a teenager, he was fascinated by theoretical physics, but decided suddenly to switch to biology as an undergraduate at Yale University after an introductory lecture by Fred Richards. He then made another switch while at Harvard University, from a medical degree to the pursuit of a scientific career, and with the guidance of the brilliant Eugene Kennedy, he investigated how the lipid bilayer of cell membranes is formed. He was awarded a PhD in 1976. During a brief post-doctoral fellowship with Harvey Lodish at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Rothman learnt to work with viruses and cell-free systems – thus acquiring skills that would later prove invaluable for identifying molecules involved in vesicle trafficking. Rothman was drawn to his first professorial appointments at Stanford University’s Department of Biochemistry by the great enzymologist Arthur Kornberg, who taught him that biochemistry could provide a route to dissecting complex biological systems. He returned to ...